Glutathione (GSH) is a non-enzymatic endogenous antioxidant whose activity is intracellular. It belongs to the group of primary antioxidants, which prevent the formation of free radicals.Although it is present in the cytoplasm of all cells, the largest glutathione reservoir is found in the liver, having an important activity in Phase II of liver detoxification.
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ROS (reactive oxygen species) are produced as a consequence of a large number of physiological processes as by-products of normal cellular metabolism, mainly in the mitochondria. However, when they are produced at higher than normal levels, such as when there is oxidative stress (OS), they are harmful, they can damage any type of biological molecules, they contribute to aging and the genesis of numerous diseases related to aging. For 글루타치온 this is important.
- Oxidative damage (oxidation) of proteins, lipids, or DNA can be very damaging and can occur simultaneously in multiple cells and tissues. However, proteins are possibly the most immediate vehicle for inflicting oxidative damage to cells through their catalytic action.
- GSH is a unique molecule that participates in essential aspects of cellular homeostasis, with a central role in defense against oxidative damage. Attack by free radicals and other oxidizing agents on biomolecules can deplete GSH, so your homeostatic redox cycle attempts to keep it at optimal levels as it is consumed. Glutathione equivalents circulate in the blood predominantly as cysteine.
Apparently, relatively high protein intakes are correlated with a lower likelihood of loss of lean mass and bone density in the elderly.
Glutathione status is a highly sensitive indicator of cell functionality and viability. As intracellular GSH is reduced, the functionality of the cell is progressively reduced. There is increasing evidence that glutathione synthesis decreases with increasing age.
From the second and third decades of life, glutathione levels begin to decline while the level of oxidative stress tends to rise.
- Dysregulation of proteostasis is the hallmark of the aging brain, which is why glutathione in sufficient quantities is essential when the risk of neuronal and cognitive deterioration is the predominant trait in aging.
- Glutathione in the prevention of neurodegenerative deterioration and recovery of cellular functionality after ischemia or hemorrhage.
Oxidative stress has been widely studied in neurological diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD), Parkinson’s disease, multiple sclerosis, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), and dementia. This is because neuronal cells are especially susceptible to OS and subsequently to cell damage (including cell death). GSH is present in the brain in very low concentrations. Although it is not known whether glutathione can be transported across the blood-brain barrier and taken up in brain cells, the precursor amino acids of GSH can cross it and be used for synthesis in the brain. In addition to the antioxidant functions of glutathione In the brain, it has been hypothesized that extracellular GSH has neurotransmitter, neurohormone, glutamate detoxification, and leukotriene metabolism functions.
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Age-dependent depletion of intracellular GSH in cerebrospinal fluid has also been observed during aging in humans. Since the brain requires extensive ROS detoxification, it is clear that a decrease in GSH content could increase oxidative damage, making the brain more susceptible to neurological disorders.
Other research work has focused on the use of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC) to study the effect of supplementation of GSH, N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) as its precursor and ascorbic acid on the prevention and reduction of oxidative damage in ischemic tissues.